Part 5: the Atlanteans, Chapter 17 – Sumerian legends
Published July 12, 2009
The Sumerians had the universe, called An-Ki (Heaven-Earth) in the form of a hemisphere.
Land, presented in the form of a flat disk surrounded by the sea, was the basis of the universe.
The lower part contained the underworld.
The part between the vault of heaven and earth was occupied by a third element called lil (wind, air, breath).
The universe floating in an infinite cosmic ocean.
The universe is, originally, the Sea primitive that produces the cosmic mountain consisting of heaven and earth together again.
The god Enlil air born of the union of heaven, the god An and male principle, with Ki, the earth. The child disunite heaven on earth.
An his father carry the sky.
Enlil carry the earth mother.
The creation of the universe, creatures and plants, is the fruit of the union of Enlil and the earth. Four main cosmic gods, Heaven, Earth, Air, and Water will create other gods.
These include the government will share the heavenly bodies, sun, moon and planets, and atmospheric forces of wind, storm and tempest.
Others will be assigned to geographic locations such as rivers, mountains, states and cities, or some of the tools of everyday life.
The King of Sumer should marry, the New Year’s Day each year, one of the priestesses of Inanna, the goddess of love and procreation, to ensure soil fertility and fecundity of females .
The supreme god, who rules the Sumerian pantheon, will be assisted by the creator gods, the other seven supreme gods who “decreed the fates” and fifty “great gods”.
The Sumerians represent the human form and will live as mortals, “the mountain of heaven and earth where the sun rises.”
That is to say, a mountain in the east, which serves as a link between the world and the world of heaven on earth
The Sumerians of the third millennium BC distinguish hundreds of gods alongside the main four creator gods: An, Enlil, Enki and the goddess Ninhursag.
They appear in the catalogs compiled in schools and in the lists of offerings and sacrifices.
Each will be specialized in one function and a mission worker.
Each city venerate his divinity, Ningirsu to Tello, Nannar-Sin at Ur, Larsa and Sippar to Babbar, Enki at Eridu.
Each king and prince will have its tutelary god.
The Sumerians assign the march of the universe of impersonal forces, to divine laws and regulations designated by the word “me”.
The list of these forces, compiled on a Sumerian tablet, cites collage sovereignty and the royal throne, power, divinity, truth, descent into hell, the flood, sex, prostitution, the joys of heart, lying, goodness, justice, wisdom, peace, and trial counsel.
The Enuma Elish (When on high … “) was written in Babylon near the beginning of the twelfth century BC, and consists of more than a thousand to over seven tablets.
The Epic of Creation recounts the origins of the universe.
The great gods opposed in two conflicts against their ancestors, the forces of chaos. At first, it is Apsu, the master of groundwater that threatens to destroy her offspring too disrespectful to him.
But the ruse of Ea allows the elimination of Apsu.
The gods are saved for now.
But suddenly a new threat presents itself, Tiamat, the primordial sea, the mother of all gods.
Wanting to avenge the death of her husband, Apsu, Master Underground water, caused by them (and Ea in particular), she creates an army of terrifying creatures in order to destroy them with the help of his new ally Kingu.
Others, eager to take advantage of a favorable opportunity, presented his son as the person providential savior gods.
He showed them that they needed to trust him, and make their champion to fight against their mother.
This was done during a banquet hosted by Ea, Marduk who was elected as the master of all gods.
After that, the god of Babylon went to the scene of combat.
After a terrible battle with many adventures, he succeeded in defeating the army of Tiamat, Celestial Weapons with which he was fitted.
He then came to the end of the mother of the gods, and used his body to create the World: he suspended the first half of the body to create Heaven (year) over the second half that formed the earth (ki) tip of the Apsu, the primordial sea.
He thus became the master of the gods and all.
They raised a temple in his honor at the scene of the fight, where he created the world.
This temple was to be not only that of Marduk, but also that of all the gods, erected in the “center of the world.”
This temple was named Esagil (“House at the head high”), and developed around the holy city of Babylon.
Marduk then created man, to allow the gods not to work, leaving the burden fall on the “substitutes”.
He does this from the blood of Kingu, who is running.
Man is created to work for the gods his masters, which remains faithful to the moral Mesopotamia.
The Enuma Elish is therefore of Babylon and its god masters of the world.
The city is considered the first to emerge from the Apsu, is seen as the center of the world, represented by the Esagila, the temple of all gods, and the ziggurat Etemenanki, the “House of the Foundation of Heaven and the Earth. ”
The descent into hell
The Sumerian myth tells how the goddess Inanna, goddess and already Queen of Heaven, decided to take control of the underworld, where his sister and sworn enemy Ereshkigal.
She decides to go for it, but take some precautions before.
She warns adviser Ninshubur his intentions, saying that if she does not return after three days and three nights, he must go and tell Enlil, then, if it does not help, Nanna, and finally as a last resort, Enki.
Once done, she went home without return.
After the protest of hell, she invents an excuse to be able to meet his sister.
But the latter, warned by his porter, urging the danger.
So she pretends to accept and to penetrate Inanna in his kingdom, by passing seven gates.
At each one, he removes a piece of jewelry or clothing, so it stands naked before Ereshkigal.
It then calls the Anunnaki, the seven judges of the underworld, who cast “look of death”, which kills it.
Then his sister hanged his body from a nail.
When she did not return Ninshubur goes to Enlil in Nippur.
But Inanna refuses to help, forcing the vizier of it to go to Ur, in Nammu, which has the same attitude.
Ninshubur travels so as to say Eridu, Enki home, which, provides support to her sister.
He makes two asexual beings, the Kurgarru, which he says “food of life,” and Kalaturru, which he says “the drink of life.”
He sends them to hell, where they say they are responsible for bringing the body of Inanna in heaven. Ereshkigal accepts, and they bring the goddess to life with food and drink entrusted by Enki / Ea.
But if it wants to get out of hell, she must find someone to replace her. So it goes back to earth, accompanied by demons sent by the gods of the underworld for the monitor to find the victim.
She went first to Umma and Bad-tibira where tutelary deities of these cities fall down before it, thus escaping death.
She then visited Kullab, where is her husband Dumuzi, who welcomes him on his throne, in his best clothes.
Then Inanna, enraged to see as disrespectful, told the demons to capture him and take him to hell for him.
Therefore, it is sent to the country without return.
However, his sister Geshtinanna intercede on his behalf, and moves Inanna, who claims his release.
But Ereshkigal yields only to the condition that he spends half the year on earth with his lover, replacing Geshtinanna into hell, before returning to the other
world the rest of the year.
A notice that his sister is also his lover, a custom common in Atlantis
According to the Sumerian King List, after the Deluge, the, royalty came to Kish.
The twelfth king Etana, a shepherd, who ascended into heaven, that which consolidated all the land and his reign would have been 1500 years.
Seals and cylinders this period represent a man abducted by an eagle, which appears to illustrate the legend.
He was appointed in the Epic of Gilgamesh among the people living in hell and sees Enkidu during its descent in the other world.
The myth of Etana has come to us with many fragments of Babylonian tablets (Suse, Tell Harmal) médioassyriennes (Assur), and the library of Assur-BANIPAL to Nineveh.
If we are to believe tradition, the author is Lu-Nanna, a sage who lived during the reign of Shulgi
Despite the number of tablets found, there is no not yet managed to reproduce the text as a whole
As it stands, it is divided into three distinct parts.
In the first part, the gods dessinèrent the city, it is probably Kish, the Anunnaki settled the fates, parties were established, but we had to find a king, a person seeking to set Inanna / Ishtar.
A large gap does not know the result of this quest, part àlaquelle Enlil.
In the second part, we see an eagle and a snake decided to join forces.
They swear by the underworld to always remain friends, calling the worst curses on those who transgress the treaty.
Each in turn brings food in the shade of a poplar tree on a mountain where they settled and where they have established each of the small.
When the young eaglets are grown, the eagle conceived in his heart evil thoughts …
He decided to eat the young of its ally
It opens this sudden craving for his children and told them to escape the wrath of the serpent shall rise in heaven
The youngest ones, the most intelligent, spoke these words to the eagle his father, Father, do not eat: the net Shamat would capture you and hold you captive
But the eagle-ogre is stubborn and not listening to the wise counsel of his son, eat small snake.
Complaints and crying with Amasha snake, which, in punishment, throwing the eagle into a hole from which he can not escape, so it is destined to die of hunger.
Etana appears, reminding Amasha he was honored, in witness whereof he asks her to give birth to the plant, because his wife is barren.
The god sends to the hole where the eagle is relegated, so that gives this plant.
The third part discusses the meeting of Etana and the eagle, which accepts that the market, it seems, he will bring Etana in heaven to find the plant.
The eagle Etana calls to be placed on his chest, arms open along its wings and then takes flight.
It is obvious that you enter a plane through the chest and not your back!
At the height of two double miles (8,000 meters), the eagle had Etana said:
Look at my friend how is the country, it is not that a hill!
A three double miles (12,000 meters) the eagle said to Etana:
Look at my friend how is the land, the sea became like a gutter around a piece of gardening!
They continue to rise into the heavens, passing the gate of Anu, Enlil and Ea.
Then, Etana seems to be down, probably for fear, but the eagle will continue to rise to heaven of Ishtar the queen that keeps the plant of birth.
The eagle then arises in a repetitive fashion the question of how the country is at the bottom, now a garden, the vast sea is like a bucket, then the country is no longer visible.
Etana a refusal to be carried still higher by the eagle, who finally obeyed and shall promptly down to earth
Thus, the hero seems to have failed in his attempt to climb to the sky, and perhaps the conclusion she drew the moral man can not access the domain of the gods
The Epic of Gilgamesh
Gilgamesh was king of the Sumerian city of Uruk.
Under his reign, about three thousand years before Christ, the Urukiens seized the neighboring cities, and ruled the entire region of their city state
The most complete text of this epic comes from the library established by King Ashurbanipal, shortly before the destruction of Nineveh in the seventh century BC.
Tyrannical king, Gilgamesh takes up the girls for his pleasure, decimating the youth in his wars, exhausted the oldest in the construction of walls around Uruk.
So much so that the people appealed to the gods, who create Enkidu, the man of clay, the man of the woods, so that it serves as an outlet for the boundless energy of the sovereign, as well as Gilgamesh consumed young men than young women
A courtesan is then responsible for initiating and introducing Enkidu to Uruk, where Gilgamesh who had defied his droit de seigneur request from a bride.
After the fabulous fight between them, Enkidu is defeated, and former enemies swear eternal friendship.
Gilgamesh and he left for the Cedar Forest Huwawa and face the fierce guardian of the trees.
Ninsun protected by the goddess, the mother of Gilgamesh, by Shamash, the sun god, aided in their task by the storm, they cut down the giant.
Back in Uruk, Gilgamesh rejects the advances of the great goddess Ishtar who fell in love with him
Offended the goddess gets from his father he launched a bull against the two celestial warriors to revenge.
But the two friends kill the monster tore his heart as an offering to the sun god and Enkidu throws his leg in the face of lshtar.
Angry, the gods decreed the death of one of the two champions, more angry because of the murder of Huwawa, the death of the celestial bull, and violence against the sacred cedar, as the insult suffered by Ishtar.
Enkidu is stricken with a fatal evil, and the lamentations of Gilgamesh on the remains of his friend are the most heartbreaking moments of the poem.
Gilgamesh, haunted by the death of Enkidu, decided to travel the world in search of immortality.
He meets Utnapishtim, the hero who survived the flood, which lies at the other end of the world in the Garden of the Sun.
We find the garden of the immortals whom we have already discussed in Chapter Asians and which are the Kun Lun Mountain
Utnapishtim reveals to Gilgamesh that the gods were awarded eternal life, and as men, they reserved the death.
He then tells the story of the Flood, Gilgamesh, and demonstrates that if men can not control sleep, they are even less the masters of their lives.
However, Utnapishtim, pitying, Gilgamesh learns the existence of the grass of Youth
The hero manages to capture the plant that restores youth but, tired, he let her escape by a snake.
Gilgamesh is back in his kingdom, conscious of having lost forever.
He learned that the temples and gardens that surround the city are the only form of immortality which he can claim.
And when he goes out, the Urukiens mourning his loss.
But Gilgamesh was not mistaken: the twentieth century, archaeologists have unearthed the remains of the walls of Uruk, and others have discovered, thousands of miles away at Sutton Hoo, on the coast of the North Sea, a jewel engraved with the image of the king of Sumer in the process of strangling two lions.
Sargon of Akkad
Sargon’s mother, a high priestess, put the world in secret and placed in a basket surrounded by asphalt and threw it into the river
The basket with the baby drifted until a drawer of water, called Aqqi, found, adoption, the student and teaches him his job as a gardener.
It does not remember anything? … … …
Become the servant of Ur-Zabad, the king of Kish, he reached the rank of cupbearer.
One day he rebelled against his benefactor, dethroned him and walked on the URUK where there was very powerful Lugalzagesi.
After conquering the city by surprise, he destroyed its walls during the battle and succeeded in capturing the great king.
Sargon Lugalzagesi shut him up in a straitjacket and carried to the temple of Enlil at Nippur, the religious capital of Mesopotamia.
By being inducted into Nippur, Sargon the Semitic Mesopotamia became the first king of the dynasty of Akkad.
He built an empire that would extend beyond well beyond the borders.
Even in declaring himself the “OINT of Anum” and the vicar of Enlil, Sargon respected the religious beliefs of many Sumerian temples.
After conquering UR, he moved his daughter Enheduanna as high priestess of the moon-god: Nanna.
Then he took the cities of Lagash and Umma, and attacked the cities of Upper Mesopotamia country to submit the three major cities: “Ebla, Mari and Iamarti” which had now to pay a large annual tribute.
The ambition of Sargon did not stop there, he engaged his army in two campaigns in Elam (Persia / Iran) to submit the two principalities of Awan and Warahshe (ally).
The cities were looted but not destroyed.
Sargon vassalized the two leaders and received their submission.
Then he went into SUSE, the capital of the ELAM he transformed into “capital of Elam” while leaving power to his former viceroy.
Thanks to the many slaves he had brought his distant campaigns, Sargon made countless expand and maintain irrigation canals to grow the grain.
Between Kish and Babilim (later Babylon), he Sprouts his “Royal Agadir new capital” with its huge palaces and fortifications of double ramparts.
As this city is located on the old route of the Euphrates, he enlarged the port in order to accommodate all the ships of the time, and he established a permanent monitoring system by establishing checkpoints and transmission Cavalry every 50 km. Each station was monitored and managed by a royal official.
Legend tells that his exploits would have led his army in Crete, Cyprus and even in distant Anatolia.
Sargon who was king for fifty six years said the protection of the goddess Ishtar, which did not prevent, despite his advanced age, to strenuously defend his coveted throne, revolts against the incessant